| Tokyo - TRTA & TBTMG
Right now, there are two metro networks in Tokyo. The first subway
line was opened in 1927 by the Teito Rapid Transit Authority (TRTA
or "Eidan"), which currently operates 8 lines, 148 stations,
162 kilometres of track, and 2,355 vehicles. The Tokyo Metropolitan
Transportation Bureau (TBTMG or "Toei") operates 4 lines
covering 68 kilometres of track, 69 stations, and 624 metro cars.
The number of passengers carried by these two networks is enormous:
of Tokyo's total population of 11 million, 7.4 million ride the
metro daily; 5.8 million passengers are carried by Eidan and 1.6
million by Toei.
Although the construction of the two subway systems was originally
modelled after its European and American antecedents, it soon
evolved into a unique underground city. In the bigger stations,
underground concourses started to unfold and underground markets
and shopping centres grew to unprecedented seizes. Many of Tokyo's
metro stations are now in fact transformed into underground cities
complete with shopping centres and multi-level streets. The scale
on which this is done is unprecedented in the whole world.
The congestion during rush hours inside the Tokyo mass transit
system is probably another world record. Nevertheless, it works
well due to the deployment of efficient crowd management techniques
and the disciplined attitude of the Japanese travellers. Trains
run frequent and stop exactly at the pre-arranged positions. Waiting
passengers form systematic rows and politely grant incoming passengers
the opportunity to alight. During the notorious rush hours, the
passengers are packed inside the trains like sardines in a tin
and sometimes even pressed in more tightly by professional pushers.
Source: López, M.J.J., Crime Prevention
Guidelines for the Construction & Management of Metro Systems,
Den Haag: RCM-advies 1996, pg. 23-25.